Adam to Jesus

Genealogy of Adam to Jesus

Adam to Jesus Genealogy
Luke 3:17-22 Winnowing Shovel

Luke 3:23-37 Adam to Jesus

Luke 3 Bible Study Questions
LUKE 3:23  23 Now Jesus Himself was about thirty years old when He began, being as was supposed, the son of Joseph, who was of Heli,

What was it that Jesus “began” when He “was about thirty years old” (Luke 3:23)?
His three year ministry that will lead to His cross.

What is meant by Jesus being “supposed” (Luke 3:23) the son of Joseph?
Jesus is God and the Son of God the Father, but people supposed Him to be the son of Joseph, the husband of Mary.

What is meant by Joseph being “of Heli” (Luke 3:23)?
υιος (huios), the original Greek word translated “son” (Luke 3:23) is omitted but implied before all of the names after “Joseph” in Luke 3:23 to Luke 3:37.

Who was Joseph's biological father according to Matthew 1:16?
A man named Jacob: “Jacob begot Joseph the husband of Mary” (Matthew 1:16).

Then why does Luke 3:23 say that Joseph was “of Heli”?
Matthew chapter 1 recounts Jesus' birth from Joseph's perspective, including the angel appearing to Joseph, and Jesus' official Jewish genealogy through Joseph, who was His legal father. By contrast, Luke chapters 1 to 3 recount Jesus' birth from Mary's perspective, including the angel appearing to Mary, and Jesus' biological genealogy through Mary. However, because Jewish genealogies were patrilineal and therefore could not list female descendants, the generation after Heli is identified by his son-in-law Joseph instead of his daughter Mary. Notice that while “Jacob begot Joseph” in Matthew 1:16 indicates that Jacob gave rise to Joseph, no such lineage is embodied in Joseph being “of Heli” in Luke 3:23.

Is there any precedent in the Bible of a son-in-law/daughter-in-law being called a son/daughter?
Naomi called “my daughters” her daughters-in-law: But Naomi said, “Turn back, my daughters. Why will you go with me? Are there still sons in my womb, that they may be your husbands?” (Ruth 1:11).

LUKE 3:24-37  24 who was of Matthat, who was of Levi, who was of Melchi, who was of Janna, who was of Joseph, 25 who was of Mattathiah, who was of Amos, who was of Nahum, who was of Esli, who was of Naggai, 26 who was of Maath, who was of Mattathiah, who was of Semei, who was of Joseph, who was of Judah, 27 who was of Joannas, who was of Rhesa, who was of Zerubbabel, who was of Shealtiel, who was of Neri, 28 who was of Melchi, who was of Addi, who was of Cosam, who was of Elmodam, who was of Er, 29 who was of Jose, who was of Eliezer, who was of Jorim, who was of Matthat, who was of Levi, 30 who was of Simeon, who was of Judah, who was of Joseph, who was of Jonan, who was of Eliakim, 31 who was of Melea, who was of Menan, who was of Mattathah, who was of Nathan, who was of David, 32 who was of Jesse, who was of Obed, who was of Boaz, who was of Salmon, who was of Nahshon, 33 who was of Amminadab, who was of Ram, who was of Hezron, who was of Perez, who was of Judah, 34 who was of Jacob, who was of Isaac, who was of Abraham, who was of Terah, who was of Nahor, 35 who was of Serug, who was of Reu, who was of Peleg, who was of Eber, who was of Shelah, 36 who was of Cainan, who was of Arphaxad, who was of Shem, who was of Noah, who was of Lamech, 37 who was of Methuselah, who was of Enoch, who was of Jared, who was of Mahalalel, who was of Cainan, 38 who was of Enosh, who was of Seth, who was of Adam, who was of God.

How does the genealogy of Jesus in Luke 3 above compare with the genealogy of Jesus in Matthew 1?
The biological genealogy in Luke 3 starts with Jesus and traces back to Adam, while the legal Jewish genealogy in Matthew 1 starts with Abraham, the first Jew, and traces forward to Jesus. Highlighted in yellow in both Luke 3 above and Matthew 1 below are the descendants of Abraham to David; they are identical in both genealogies. Highlighted in green are the descendants of David; they differ in the two genealogies since Mary descended from David's son Nathan, while her husband Joseph descended from David's son Solomon. Highlighted in blue above are the ancestors of Abraham, named in Luke 3 but omitted in Matthew 1.
1 The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, Son of David, Son of Abraham: 2 Abraham begot Isaac, and Isaac begot Jacob, and Jacob begot Judah and his brothers. 3 And Judah begot Perez and Zerah by Tamar, and Perez begot Hezron, and Hezron begot Ram. 4 And Ram begot Amminadab, and Amminadab begot Nahshon, and Nahshon begot Salmon. 5 And Salmon begot Boaz by Rahab, and Boaz begot Obed by Ruth, and Obed begot Jesse. 6 And Jesse begot David the king, and David the king begot Solomon by her of Uriah. 7 And Solomon begot Rehoboam, and Rehoboam begot Abijah, and Abijah begot Asa. 8 And Asa begot Jehoshaphat, and Jehoshaphat begot Joram, and Joram begot Uzziah. 9 And Uzziah begot Jotham, and Jotham begot Ahaz, and Ahaz begot Hezekiah. 10 And Hezekiah begot Manasseh, and Manasseh begot Amon, and Amon begot Josiah. 11 And Josiah begot Jeconiah and his brothers at about the time of the deportation to Babylon. 12 And after the deportation to Babylon, Jeconiah begot Shealtiel, and Shealtiel begot Zerubbabel. 13 And Zerubbabel begot Abiud, and Abiud begot Eliakim, and Eliakim begot Azor. 14 And Azor begot Zadok, and Zadok begot Achim, and Achim begot Eliud. 15 And Eliud begot Eleazar, and Eleazar begot Matthan, and Matthan begot Jacob. 16 And Jacob begot Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ.” (Matthew 1:1-16)

After David, why does Luke name 41 generations but Matthew only 27 generations?
See Fourteen Generations.

Why did God even bother to give us in Luke the biological genealogy of Jesus after the legal genealogy already given in Matthew 1?
The Old Testament prophesied that Jesus will be a biological descendant of David: “Has not the Scripture said that the Christ comes from the seed of David ...” (John 7:42). The genealogy in Matthew establishes Jesus' legal Jewish heritage, but since Joseph wasn't His biological father, it does not establish Jesus' biological lineage to David. This genealogy through Mary in Luke establishes that lineage, and traces Him past Abraham, the first Jew, all the way back to Adam, the first man.