John 13 Bible Study
How long "before" (John 13:1) the Feast of the Passover was this?
This was the night before Passover started.
How had Jesus known that "His hour had come" (John 13:1)?
It had been confirmed by the Gentiles asking for Jesus (John 12:20-23) just days prior.
Who is "Him" in John 13:2?
What is meant by the devil having already put the betrayal of Jesus into Judas Iscariot's heart?
Judas had already agreed to betray Jesus: "Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests and said, “What are you willing to give me if I deliver Him to you?” And they counted out to him thirty pieces of silver. So from that time he sought opportunity to betray Him." (Matthew 26:14-16)
And what supper had just "ended" (John 13:2)?
The "Last Supper", described in Luke 22:14-20: "14 When the hour had come, He sat down, and the twelve apostles with Him. 15 Then He said to them, “With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; 16 for I say to you, I will no longer eat of it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.” 17 Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves; 18 for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.” 19 And He took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me.” 20 Likewise He also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you.
When Jesus told the disciples to "take" the bread,
saying, "This is My body which is given for you" and the wine, saying,
“This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you" was He
telling them to eat His human flesh and drink His human blood?
Of course not.
How do we know for sure Jesus was telling them to eat bread
and wine, not His human flesh and blood?
His blood had not yet been "shed" so it couldn't have been in the cup, and the same goes for His body, which had not yet been "given." He described what they were to drink as "the fruit of the vine" (Luke 22:18), not human blood, and if they ate His body, which part of it did they eat? Jesus was telling them to take the wine and the bread "in remembrance" of the sacrifice He was about to make on the cross "once" - "For Christ also suffered once for sins" (1 Peter 3:18) - not commit cannibalism and make a habit of it, as some have insisted over the centuries.
Why did Jesus lay "aside His garments,
took a towel and" gird "Himself" (John 13:4)?
He was dressing Himself down as a slave.
Why did feet needed to be washed in those days?
Because they became very dirty.
Is that why Jesus dressed down like a slave and began to wash the disciples' feet?
No, if that were the case, the feet would have been washed before the meal started and by someone else. It was unthinkable for a rabbi to wash the feet of his disciples.
When did Jesus start to wash their feet?
He had told them that one of them would betray Him: "But behold, the hand of My betrayer is with Me on the table. And truly the Son of Man goes as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom He is betrayed!" (Luke 22:21-22) They began trying to guess the perpetrator among them, and their discussion soon degenerated into an argument over who was the best among them: "Then they began to question among themselves, which of them it was who would do this thing. Now there was also a dispute among them, as to which of them should be considered the greatest." (Luke 22:23-24) It was while their argued on in pride that Jesus dressed down like a slave and began to wash their feet.
What tendency does Peter exhibit in John 13:6-9?
He tends to talk before thinking.
What doesn't he exhibit in John 13:6-9?
An ego before Jesus. Having just declared, “You shall never wash my feet!” (John 13:8) one would expect him to start by trying to defend his position. Yet on one word from Jesus, he abandons it and instead swings to the other extreme.
What is meant by, "He who is bathed needs only to
wash his feet, but is completely clean" (John 13:10)?
When a person is saved by Jesus, they are "completely clean" of sins, but they don't completely stop sinning, even though they sin less and less. So, just as road dirt continue to accumulate on cleaned feet and need to be washed constantly, so should our daily sins constantly be confessed to Jesus, not another human being.
Who is Jesus talking about in John 13:11 and what was He saying about him?
He was saying that Judas Iscariot is not saved.
What’s disappointing about what is described in John 13:4-12?
It records one of the twelve protesting, but no one volunteering to wash the others’ feet in Jesus’ place.
What is Jesus' message above?
Be humble and have no ego before each other either.
How did Jesus teach and lead?
By example, which should be heeded by more leaders today.
What is the difference between a "Teacher" and a "Lord" (John 13:13)?
Teacher is someone to be listened to and observed. Lord is someone to be obeyed unconditionally.
To you, is Jesus both or one?
What does Jesus mean by, "He who eats bread with Me
has lifted up his heel against Me" (John 13:18)?
He is telling them that someone close to Him will strike out at Him, and that this will fulfill another prophecy in the "Scripture": "Even my own familiar friend in whom I trusted, who ate my bread, has lifted up his heel against me." (Psalm 41:9)
Is He saying this so that they can try to stop the striker?
No, He is revealing this "before it comes" so that "when it does come to pass" (John 13:19), they will know that He wasn't caught off guard, but is "He" (John 13:19), the Messiah who knew all things in advance.
What is Jesus doing in John 13:20?
He is commissioning them as His ambassadors.
What does the disciples being "perplexed"
in John 13:22 tell about Judas Iscariot?
The disciples had spent 3 years day and night with Judas but couldn't recognize him as the betrayer even after Jesus said there is a betrayer in their midst. His hypocrisy was good enough to fool everyone except Jesus.
Are there betrayers of Christ in churches today?
Unfortunately yes, and some of their hypocrisy is as good as Judas'. The only person we can and should trust completely is the Word of God.
Who is "one of His disciples, whom Jesus loved" (John 13:23)?
John who wrote this Gospel.
What was he doing "leaning on Jesus' bosom" (John 13:23)
and "leaning back on Jesus' breast" (John 13:25)?
Contrary to the depiction by a famous Medieval artist, the Last Supper wasn't eaten by 13 men sitting on one side of a long dining table while facing an audience. For communal meals like this one, everyone sat on the floor around the food, leaning on their left elbow with their legs stretched out behind them and ate with their right hand. This meant that each person’s head was just in front of the torso - "bosom" or "breast" - of the person to their left. The person to the left of John was Jesus. Peter, who was further away, "motioned" John to ask Jesus "who it was of whom He spoke" (John 13:24), so John leaned back to ask.
Did the other disciples hear John’s question and Jesus’ answer to him?
Most likely not, since "some thought, because Judas had the money box, that Jesus had said to him, 'Buy those things we need for the feast,' or that he should give something to the poor." (John 13:29)
To whom did Jesus say, "What you do, do quickly" (John 13:27)?
Since Satan had "entered" (John 13:27) Judas, Judas was under Satan's possession, so Jesus was speaking to Satan.
What does this mean?
Jesus wasn't killed by Satan but used Satan's attack and Judas' betrayal to affect His sacrifice on the cross. Jesus was in full control of everyone involved in His crucifixion, down to their respective timing.
Then when did Judas betray Jesus?
The first time he stole from "the money box". (John 12:6)
How much longer is "a little while longer" in John 13:33?
Jesus would be on the cross within 12 hours.
How will people recognize Jesus' disciples?
By their "love for one another." (John 13:35)
What is Peter saying by, "I will lay down my life
for Your sake" (John 13:37)?
That he is willing to die for Jesus.
Is is easier to die or to live for Jesus?
For those who will go to heaven upon death, dying actually may seem easier than continuing to live in this sinful world. But until the One who laid His life down for us calls us to heaven, we are to live for Him.