Annas and Caiaphas

I am He, Jesus of Nazareth

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John 18 Commentary
John 18:2-9 Jesus of Nazareth
John 18:10-12 Judas' Kiss

John 18:13-24 Annas and Caiaphas

John 18:25-27 (A): Peter Denies Jesus
John 18:25-27 (B): Jesus' Trial
John 18:28-32 Praetorium
John 18:33-38 My Kingdom Is Not of This World
John 18:39-40 Barabbas
JOHN 18:13-14  13 And they led Him away to Annas first, for he was the father-in-law of Caiaphas who was high priest that year. 14 Now it was Caiaphas who advised the Jews that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.

Who was the high priest that year?
"Caiaphas" (John 18:13).

To whom was Jesus taken first?
"Annas" (John 18:13).

Who was Annas?
Caiaphas’ "father-in-law" (John 18:13).

Why would Jesus be taken first to the father-in-law of the high priest?
Annas had been the high priest since 7 AD but the Romans found him hard to push around and told him to step down. He did so in 14 AD but installed Caiaphas, his son-in-law, in his place in 18 AD. So officially, Caiphas was the high priest. But the real power lay with his father-in-law, Annas, whom the Jews still considered to be the real high priest.

When did Caiaphas advise "the Jews that it was expedient that one man should die for the people" (John 18:14)?
See Caiaphas.

JOHN 18:15-18  15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple. Now that disciple was known to the high priest, and went with Jesus into the courtyard of the high priest. 16 But Peter stood at the door outside. Then the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to her who kept the door, and brought Peter in. 17 Then the servant girl who kept the door said to Peter, “You are not also one of this Man’s disciples, are you?” He said, “I am not.” 18 Now the servants and officers who had made a fire of coals stood there, for it was cold, and they warmed themselves. And Peter stood with them and warmed himself.

Who was this “another disciple” (John 18:15)?
John, the writer on this Gospel, who also called himself the "disciple whom Jesus loved.” (John 20:2)

Who was the gatekeeper of Annas’ house?
"Servant girl who kept the door" (John 18:17)

Why did John get past her while Peter got stuck outside?
John "was known to the high priest." (John 18:16)

What did the servant girl ask Peter?
“You are not also one of this Man’s disciples, are you?” (John 18:17)

What does that question reveal about what John told her about his and Peter’s relationship to Jesus?
The “also” indicates that John had told her that he was Jesus' disciple but didn’t tell her that Peter was, which probably piqued her curiosity and led her to probe Peter.

JOHN 18:19-24  19 The high priest then asked Jesus about His disciples and His doctrine. 20 Jesus answered him, “I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues and in the temple, where the Jews always meet, and in secret I have said nothing. 21 Why do you ask Me? Ask those who have heard Me what I said to them. Indeed they know what I said.” 22 And when He had said these things, one of the officers who stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, “Do You answer the high priest like that?” 23 Jesus answered him, “If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil; but if well, why do you strike Me?” 24 Then Annas sent Him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.

What is Annas interested in?
The accomplices and the ideology of the threat to his power: "The high priest then asked Jesus about His disciples and His doctrine." (John 18:19)

How does Jesus respond?
He reminds Annas that his own cronies - “the Jews” (John 18:20) - know the answers, so he should ask them.

How did "one of the officers" (John 18:22) of the temple guard hit Jesus?
He slapped him: "struck Jesus with the palm of his hand." (John 18:22)

For what perceived reason?
Insolence.

What is ironic about that?
He slapped God for insolence.

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